SOCIAL GROUPS, WORKGROUPS, AND TEAMS -Komunikasi Kelompok-

February 22, 2011 § Leave a comment

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Mata kuliah: Komunikasi Kelompok          Hari/ Tanggal: Jumat/ 25 Februari 2011

KPM (212)                                       Nama/ NRP  : Lutfi Afifah/ A34070039

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SOCIAL GROUPS, WORKGROUPS, AND TEAMS

The kinds of issues and problem we face as a society have become increasingly complex. Issues and many problems such as health care, energy, education, and economic innovation cannot be addressed by the action of a single individual rather, they require the coordinated action of people working together these complex concerns. Collaboration may defined as “people with different views and prespective coming together, putting aside their narrow self-interst, and discussing issues openly and achive a broader goal” (Lafasto & Larson, 2001.p. xvii). Collaboration within groups and teams has become critical as groups typically make better decisions than do individuals: the wealth of knowledge and insight is greater within groups as many individuals bring their unique backgrounds and knowledge to the task at hand.

The Embeddedness of Groups

A small group has typically been defined as three or more people who interact with one another toward the accomplishment of a shared goal and who perceive themselves as members of a particular group. This definition carries with it three important assumptions. First, the lower bound for a small group is set at three people, but no upper bound is set. Most definitions of small groups use three as a lower bound becausethree individuals allow for the possibility of coalitions to emerge where two people can form an alliance against one person.Second, small groups emphasize interaction. This is what a communication approach to the study of signs, symbols, and messages that group members use to accomplish their task. Third, small group members have behavioral and goal interdependence. Behavioral interdependence refers to the way a groups members messages affect and are affected by other group members messages. Goal interdependence refers to the primary goal that group members share. There are at least three important ways in wich we can say that groups are embedded within context.

  1. Group and team members bring their own distinct personal, professional, and cultural backgrounds to their presentgroup experience. The way the personal experiences of individuals enter into group life has recently been talked about in terms of diversity. Diversity within small groups has been conceptualized in terms of a variety of general social characteristics (example national identity, gender, race, ethnicity, sexual oriaentation, and values) as well as organizational characteristics (membership within a particular department or division, leght of tenure within an organizations, and technical expertise). Sometimes fault lines or coalition or subgroups may emerge within groups and teams due to these demographic characteristics and may frustrate collaboration.
  2. Groups exist in time. Time is an important maker for a groups activities. Group life doesn’t exist in a vacuum; it exist within a particular time period, and this time period is associated with particular cultural ideas that people bring to the group experience that influenced how they act negotiate throughout their group experience that influence how they respond to the task.

Most models of group and team development assume that groups start with an orientation phase where members orient themselves to the parameters of the work they are to accomplish and to each other. For examples Tuckman and Jensen (1977) offer a classic models of group development. In their model, groups start with a phase called joining, where group members get to know each other and determine the scope of their work. This is usually followed by a phase called storming, where group members may disagree over the nature of the task, wich member is to act in what role, and what procedures should be used to perform the task. Ultimately, groups move from storming to norming and then into performing.

Groups and teams are embedded in network of other groups and teams. To extend John Donne, no group or team is an island. Groups are embedded within networks of other groups and teams. At an individual level, the connectedness may include overlapping group and team memberships and relationships among group and team members in other context. At group level, groups and teams are also connected to each other given their unique function or purpose.

Group communications Activities

These four important communications activities are: (1) information management (2) decision making (3) learning, and (4) relating.

Information Management

Inforiomation is the lifeblood of small groups. Useful and timely information is critical for small groups and teamsto make smart choices about how to organize their activities and execute their task. First, groups need to have access to and be able to disseminate information quickly. Second, groups need to develop system for monitoringtheir environments.Richard Hackman (2002) has argued that three are five important conditions that lead to group or team effectiveness:

1. Clear engaging direction

2. Facilitative group structure

3. Supportive organizational context

4. Available expert coaching

5. Adequate material resource

Decision Making

One primary activity for any group is making decision. Making good decisions depends on performing certain communication function during discussion.

  1. Developing an understanding of the problem, including talking about the nature of the problem, its scope, its symtomps, and its possible causes.
  2. Identifying criteria for solving the problem.
  3. Generating a range of realistic alternatives by brainstorming a variety of possible to a problem that cover the range of acceptable choices.
  4. Evaluating the negative and positive consequence associated with particular alternatives.

The above has been called a functional approach to group decision making

Learning

Many groups and teams are specifically designed to enhance the learning of their members. Sometimes, skills training groups are created by nonprofit community organization to enhance a persons basic life skills, such as assertiveness, conflict management, financial management, parenting, and job competencies. Dialogue can be viewed as a form of communication that allows people to think collectively and examine each other’s assumptions about situations. Dialogue involves the following kinds of activities:

-      Seeing the whole among the parts

-      Seeing the connections between the parts

-      Inquiring into assumptions

-      Learning through inquiry and disclosure

-      Creating shared meaning among people.

Relating

Effective relationships are built on the power of affirmative communication. Creating positive relationships that foster learning within groups requires keeping a balance between affirmation and challenge.

Penjelasan lebih lanjut tentang Kelompok social, Kelompok kerja, dan Tim terdapat dalam matrixs di bawah ini:

Kelompok Sosial Kelompok Kerja Tim
  • · Definisi Kelompok social (Muzafer Sherif) adalah suatu kesatuan social yang terdiri dari dua atau lebih individu yang telah mengadakan interaksi social yang cukup intensif dan teratur, sehingga diantara individu itu sudah terdapat pembagian tugas, struktur, dan norma-norma tertentu.
  • · Ciri-ciri Kelompok social menurut Muzafer Sherif antara lain:
  1. Adanya dorongan atau motif yang sama pada setiap individu sehingga terjadi interaksi social sesamanya dan tertuju pada tujuan bersama.
  2. Adanya reaksi dan kecakapan yang berbeda diantara individu satu dengan yang lain akibat terjadinya interaksi social.
  3. Adanya pembentukan dan penegasan struktur kelompok yang jelas, terdiri dari peranan dan kedudukan yang berkembang dengan sendirinya dalam rangka mencapai tujuan bersama.
  4. Adanya penegasan dan peneguhan norma-norma pedoman tingkah laku anggota kelompok yang mengatur interaksi dan kegiatan anggota kelompok dalam merealisasikan tujuan kelompok.
  • · Kelompok kerja merupakan salah satu bentuk dari kelompok formal dimana terdiri ats karyawan-karyawan yang bekerja bersama untuk menyelesaikan suatu tugas atau proyek tertentu.
  • · Salah satu model perkembangan kelompok yang paling banyak digunakan mengasumsikan bahwa kelompok-kelompok berkembang melalui lima tahap perkembangan:

(1) tahap pembentukan/ forming

(2) tahap konflik/ storming

(3) tahap pembentukan norma/ norming

(4) tahap penunjukan kinerja/ performing

(5) dan tahap pembubaran./ adjourning

 

  • · Sebuah tim dilihat sebagai sebuah kelompok matang yang terdiri dari orang-orang yang saling bergantung, termotivasi, dan memiliki komitmen untuk mencapai sebuah sasaran yang disepakati bersama.
  • · Tidak ada system klasifikasi standar yang dapat digunakan untuk mendeskripsikan berbagai macam tim. Pembedaan antar tim dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan dasar ukuran, komposisi, tingkat organisasi, durasi (permanen versus kontemporer), sasaran, dan potensi sumbangsih tim terhadap kinerja organisasi.
  • ·Sejumlah kategori tersebut digunakan untuk membagi beberapa jenis kelompok yang penting dalam organisasi saat ini, antara lain:
  1. Tim penyelesaian masalah
  2. Tim lintas fungsi (Cross-Functional System)
  3. Tim maya (Virtual team)
  4. Tim pengembangan dan penelitian, dan
  5. Tim mandiri

Referensi

Goldberg A Alvin & Larson E Carl. 1985. Komunikasi Kelompok: proses-proses diskusi dan penerapannya. Jakarta: Penerbit Universitas Indonesia (UI-Press).

Ivancevich M John, Konopaske Robert, Matteson T Michael. 2005. Perilaku dan Manajemen Organisasi: edisi ketujuh. Jakarta: Erlangga

Santosa Slamet. 2006.Dinamika Kelompok: edisi Revisi. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.

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